Ferdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Trainable fourth-order partial differential equations for image noise removal2352603991610.22067/ijnao.2021.67760.1002ENN. KhoeinihaDepartment of Applied athematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.0000-0001-5230-0222S.M. HosseiniDepartment of Applied athematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.0000-0001-6841-497XR. DavoudiDepartment of Applied athematics, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.Journal Article20201214<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">Image processing by partial differential equations (PDEs) has been an active topic in the area of image denoising, which is an important task in computer vision. In PDE-based methods for unprocessed image process ing, the original image is considered as the initial value for the PDE and the solution of the equation is the outcome of the model. Despite the advan tages of using PDEs in image processing, designing and modeling different equations for various types of applications have always been a challenging and interesting problem. In this article, we aim to tackle this problem by introducing a fourth-order equation with flexible and trainable coefficients, and with the help of an optimal control problem, the coefficients are determined; therefore the proposed model adapts itself to each particular application. At the final stage, the image enhancement is performed on the noisy test image and the performance of our proposed method is compared to other PDE-based models.<br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_39916_233ad80857a440522d37bf74b56f3f68.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Exponentially fitted tension spline method for singularly perturbed differential difference equations2612823998010.22067/ijnao.2021.68227.1009ENM.M. WoldaregayDepartment of Applied athematics, Adama Science and Technology University, Adama, Ethiopia.G.F. DuressaDepartment of Mathematics, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.Journal Article20210109<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">In this article, singularly perturbed differential difference equations having delay and advance in the reaction terms are considered. The highest-order derivative term of the equation is multiplied by a perturbation parameter <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>ε </em><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">taking arbitrary values in the interval <span style="font-family: CMR8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">(0<span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>, </em><span style="font-family: CMR8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">1]<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">. For the small value of <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>ε</em><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">, the solution of the equation exhibits a boundary layer on the left or right side of the domain depending on the sign of the convective term. The terms with the shifts are approximated by using the Taylor series approximation.The resulting singularly perturbed boundary value problem is solved using an exponentially fitted tension spline method. The stability and uniform convergence of the scheme are discussed and proved. Numerical exam ples are considered for validating the theoretical analysis of the scheme. The developed scheme gives an accurate result with linear order uniform convergence.</span></span></span><br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span></span></span></span></span></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_39980_58f60f6fa77b8533e55d358295f5f824.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901New class of hybrid explicit methods for numerical solution of optimal control problems2833044008910.22067/ijnao.2021.67961.1005ENM. EbadiDepartment of Mathematics, University of Farhangian, Tehran, Iran.I. Malih MalekiDepartment of Mathematics, Payam-e-Nour University, Tehran, Iran.A. EbadianDepartment of Mathematics, Urmia university, Urmia, Iran.Journal Article20201225<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">Forward-backward sweep method (FBSM) is an indirect numerical method used for solving optimal control problems, in which the differential equation arising from this method is solved by the Pontryagin’s maximum principle. In this paper, a set of hybrid methods based on explicit 6th-order RungeKutta method is presented for the FBSM solution of optimal control problems. Order of truncation error, stability region, and numerical results of the new hybrid methods were compared with those of the 6th-order Runge Kutta method. Numerical results show that new hybrid methods are more accurate than the 6th-order Runge–Kutta method and that their stability regions are also wider than that of the 6th-order Runge–Kutta method. <br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40089_d11d8bbba8ec99ab152b199d67571ad6.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901The strict complementarity in linear fractional optimization3053324015310.22067/ijnao.2021.11330.0ENM. MehdilooDepartment of Mathematics and Applications, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.0000-0002-0128-2666K. ToneNational Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Tokyo, Japan.M.B. AhmadiDepartment of Mathematics, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.Journal Article20200829As an important duality result in linear optimization, the Goldman–Tucker theorem establishes strict complementarity between a pair of primal and dual linear programs. Our study extends this result into the framework of linear fractional optimization. Associated with a linear fractional program, a dual program can be defined as the dual of the equivalent linear program obtained from applying the Charnes–Cooper transformation to the given program. Based on this definition, we propose new criteria for primal and dual optimality by showing that the primal and dual optimal sets can be equivalently modeled as the optimal sets of a pair of primal and dual linear programs. Then, we define the concept of strict complementarity and establish the existence of at least one, called <em>strict complementary</em>, pair of primal and dual optimal solutions such that in every pair of comple mentary variables, exactly one variable is positive and the other is zero. We geometrically interpret the strict complementarity in terms of the relative interiors of two sets that represent the primal and dual optimal setsin higher dimensions. Finally, using this interpretation, we develop two approaches for finding a strict complementary solution in linear fractional optimization. We illustrate our results with two numerical examples.<br /><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"> </span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40153_00b472fc336b9017e4bd85ab7de7c022.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Solving quantum optimal control problems by wavelets method3333504020610.22067/ijnao.2021.11332.0ENM. RahimiDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.S.M. KarbassiDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.M.R. HooshmandaslDepartment of Computer Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.0000-0002-3834-3610Journal Article20201019<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">We present the quantum equation and synthesize an optimal control proce dure for this equation. We develop a theoretical method for the analysis of quantum optimal control system given by the time depending Schrödinger equation. The Legendre wavelet method is proposed for solving this problem. This can be used as an efficient and accurate computational method for obtaining numerical solutions of different quantum optimal control problems. The distinguishing feature of this paper is that it makes the method, previously used to solve non-quantum control equations based on Legendre wavelets, usable by using a change of variables for quantum control equations.<br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40206_105436450fe0bf02be55ffda4b32ce9d.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Singularly perturbed robin type boundary value problems with discontinuous source term in geophysical fluid dynamics3513644020810.22067/ijnao.2021.70376.1033ENB.M. AbageroDepartment of Mathematics, College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma,
Ethiopia.G.F. DuressaDepartment of Mathematics, College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma,
Ethiopia.0000-0003-1889-4690H.G. DebelaDepartment of Mathematics, College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma,
Ethiopia.0000-0003-1033-3602Journal Article20210511<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">Singularly perturbed robin type boundary value problems with discontinuous source terms applicable in geophysical fluid are considered. Due to the discontinuity, interior layers appear in the solution. To fit the interior and boundary layers, a fitted nonstandard numerical method is constructed. To treat the robin boundary condition, we use a finite difference formula. The stability and parameter uniform convergence of the proposed method is proved. To validate the applicability of the scheme, two model problems are considered for numerical experimentation and solved for different values of the perturbation parameter, <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>ε</em><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">, and mesh size, <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>h</em><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">. The numerical result is tabulated, and it is observed that the present method is more accurate and uniformly convergent with order of convergence of <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>O</em><span style="font-family: CMR8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">(<span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>h</em><span style="font-family: CMR8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">)<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40208_c56ded2fb25161605618e1c37e6136b8.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Two new approximations to Caputo–Fabrizio fractional equation on non-uniform meshes and its applications3653834029710.22067/ijnao.2021.70255.1031ENZ. SooriFaculty of Mathematics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P. O. Box: 16765-3381, Tehran, Iran.A. AminataeiFaculty of Mathematics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, P. O. Box: 16765-3381, Tehran, Iran.0000-0001-5247-4492Journal Article20210505<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">We present two numerical approximations with non-uniform meshes to the Caputo–Fabrizio derivative of order <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>α </em><span style="font-family: CMR8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">(0 <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>< α < </em><span style="font-family: CMR8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">1)<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">. First, the L1 formula is obtained by using the linear interpolation approximation for constructing the second-order approximation. Next, the quadratic interpolation approximation is used for improving the accuracy in the temporal direction. Besides, we discretize the spatial derivative using the compact finite difference scheme. The accuracy of the suggested schemes is not dependent on the fractional <span style="font-family: CMMI8; font-size: 7pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"><em>α</em><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">. The coefficients and the truncation errors are carefully investigated for two schemes, separately. Three examples are carried out to support the convergence orders and show the efficiency of the suggested scheme.</span></span><br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span></span></span></span></span></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40297_539da19b30ce88fb5daed090b093da8b.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Application of Newton–Cotes quadrature rule for nonlinear Hammerstein integral equations3853994029810.22067/ijnao.2021.69824.1024ENA. ShahsavaranDepartment of Mathematics, Borujerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Borujerd, Iran.Journal Article20210413<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">A numerical method for solving Fredholm and Volterra integral equations of the second kind is presented. The method is based on the use of the Newton–Cotes quadrature rule and Lagrange interpolation polynomials. By the proposed method, the main problem is reduced to solve some nonlinear algebraic equations that can be solved by Newton’s method. Also, we prove some statements about the convergence of the method. It is shown that the approximated solution is uniformly convergent to the exact solution. In addition, to demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of the proposed method, several numerical examples are included, which confirms the convergence results.<br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40298_8f0b5d9e5cf5575bb25b776ee2ffb5b9.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Investigating a claim about resource complexity measure4014054031210.22067/ijnao.2021.70437.1034ENH.R. YousefzadehDepartment of Mathematics, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box, 19395-4697,
Tehran, Iran.0000-0002-9850-2900Journal Article20210516<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">The utilization factor (UF) measures the ratio of the total resources’ amount required to the availability of resources’ amount during the life cycle of a project. In 1982, in the journal of Management Science, Kurtulus and Davis claimed that “If two resource-constrained problems for each type of resource have the same UF’s value in each period of time, then each problem is subjected to the same amount of delay provided that the same sequencing rule is used (If different tie-breaking rules are used, a different schedule may be obtained)”. In this paper, with a counterexample, we show that the claim of authors cannot be justified.<br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40312_8214282b691a326eca997c011264a241.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901A new algorithm for solving linear programming problems with bipolar fuzzy relation equation constraints4074354035610.22067/ijnao.2021.67046.0ENS. AliannezhadiSchool of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Damghan University, P.O.Box 36715-
364, Damghan, Iran.A. Abbasi MolaiSchool of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Damghan University, P.O.Box 36715-
364, Damghan, Iran.Journal Article20201104<span style="font-size: 8.0pt; font-family: 'LMRoman9-Regular','serif'; color: black;">This paper studies the linear optimization problem subject to a system of bipolar fuzzy relation equations with the max-product composition operator. Its feasible domain is briefly characterized by its lower and upper bound, and its consistency is considered. Also, some sufficient conditions are proposed to reduce the size of the search domain of the optimal solution to the problem. Under these conditions, some equations can be deleted to compute the minimum objective value. Some sufficient conditions are then proposed which under them, one of the optimal solutions of the problem is explicitly determined and the uniqueness conditions of the optimal solution are expressed. Moreover, a modified branch-and-bound method based on a value matrix is proposed to solve the reduced problem. A new algorithm is finally designed to solve the problem based on the conditions and modified branch-and-bound method. The algorithm is compared to the methods in other papers to show its efficiency.</span><br /><span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;"> </span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40356_7506fb590e1f5781ba09ed85ce553566.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Review of the strain-based formulation for analysis of plane structures Part I: Formulation of basics and the existing elements4374834037610.22067/ijnao.2021.11336.0ENM. Rezaiee-PajandProfessor of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.0000-0002-8808-0011N. Gharaei-MoghaddamPhD of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.M. RamezaniPhD Student of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.Journal Article20201025<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">Since the introduction of the finite element approach, as a numerical solution scheme for structural and solid mechanics applications, various for mulation methodologies have been proposed. These ways offer different advantages and shortcomings. Among these techniques, the standard displacement-based approach has attracted more interest due to its straightforward scheme and generality. Investigators have proved that the other strategies, such as the force-based, hybrid, assumed stress, and as sumed strain provides special advantages in comparison with the classicfinite elements. For instance, the mentioned techniques are able to solve difficulties, like shear locking, shear parasitic error, mesh sensitivity, poor convergence, and rotational dependency. The main goal of this two-part study is to present a brief yet clear portrait of the basics and advantages of the direct strain-based method for development of high-performance plane finite elements. In this article, which is the first part of this study, assump tions and the basics of this method are introduced. Then, a detailed review of all the existing strain-based membrane elements is presented. Although the strain formulation is applicable for different types of structures, most of the existing elements pertain to the plane structures. The second part of this study deals with the application and performance of the reviewed elements in the analysis of plane stress/strain problems.<br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40376_2db58286f41941aef7253ad641487056.pdfFerdowsi University of MashhadIranian Journal of Numerical Analysis and Optimization2423-697711220210901Review of the strain-based formulation for analysis of plane structures Part II: Evaluation of the numerical performance4855114037710.22067/ijnao.2021.70940.1051ENM. Rezaiee-PajandProfessor of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.0000-0002-8808-0011Nima Gharaei-MoghaddamPhD of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, IranM. RamezaniPhD Student of Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.Journal Article20201025<span style="font-family: LMRoman9-Regular; font-size: 8pt; color: #000000; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal;">In this part of the study, several benchmark problems are solved to evalu ate the performance of the existing strain-based membrane elements, which were reviewed in the first part. This numerical evaluation provides a basis for comparison between these elements. Detailed discussions are offered after each benchmark problem. Based on the attained results, it is con cluded that inclusion of drilling degrees of freedom and also utilization of higher-order assumed strain field result in higher accuracy of the elements. Moreover, it is evident that imposing the optimal criteria such as equilib rium and compatibility on the assumed strain field, in addition to reducing the number of degrees of freedom of the element, increases the convergence speed of the resulting strain-based finite elements.<br style="font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: normal; orphans: 2; text-align: -webkit-auto; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: 2; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust: auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" /></span>https://ijnao.um.ac.ir/article_40377_157df8f040575407e2685fb30b16f2c2.pdf